CAFM 6 - Indigenous History & Developments

Course Description  

Learning about Indigenous History, current issues and where we are headed as Indigenous People is critical knowledge for all professionals working within an aboriginal environment. This course is intended to provide students with an understanding of a range of events and issues that impacted Indigenous Peoples, either positively or negatively from early contact with the Old World to the present. This course covers the following:
  • The importance of reflecting on our history
  • Examination of Treaties      
  • Aboriginal economic and political structures
  • The role of the Indian Agent
  • Residential Schools
  • Political Renaissance
  • Next Generation/New Directions
  • Growth of Aboriginal Political Organizations
  • New legislation and Economic self sufficiency

Course Fees:

  • Members: $575 (plus applicable taxes)
  • Non-members: $695 (plus applicable taxes)


Course Description and Learning Objectives

Lesson One – Towards and Understanding of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Relations

Unit One:  The Importance of Reflecting on History

Unit Two:  A Framework for Reflecting on History:  A Cycle of Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal Relations

Unit Three:  Whose History Has Been Documented and Explored?

Unit Four:  Is History Important and Why do we Study It?

Lesson Two – Pre-Contact – Before 1500

Unit One: A Survey of Tribal Societies and Nations and their Distribution in North America before contact, including the Arctic Inuit

Unit Two: A Review of the Distinguishing economic, political and social features of the Aboriginal People before contact

Unit Three: An Examination of selected Nations and their economic, political, and social structures: (Several nations will be selected, depending on easy access to references. They might include those listed here):
  • The Inuit
  • The Blackfoot
  • The Mi’kmaq
  • The Salish

Lesson Three – Contact:  The Fur Trade, Explorers and the Military

Unit One:  The Impact of the Fur Trade on First Nations –
  • Why Did the Fur Trade emerge as a dominant economic activity in North America?
  • Understanding the role of the First Nations in the Fur Trade and their participation
Unit Two:  European Exploration of the New World
  • An examination of the importance of exploration in North America
  • The impact of the European presence on First Nations and their political status
  • An appreciation of European dependency of First Nations
  • The emergence of the Mètis – who are they?
Unit Three:  The Importance of European conflicts on First Nations
  • A review of European conflicts and their impacts in North America
  • Understanding the strategic importance of First Nations in the balance of power among the competing European nations
  • The importance of strategic alliances between First Nations and European powers
Unit Four:  A Golden Age of European-First Nations relationships: 1650-1815
  • Assessing the role of First Nations between 1650-1815
  • Did a partnership between equals exist during this period?
  • An appreciation of the efforts Europeans expended to maintain alliances

Lesson Four – Treaties, Disease, and Declining Fortunes
Unit One:  An Examination of Treaties:
  • Their purposes:
  • For Europeans
  • For FNs
  • Was the treaty process understood by FNs?
Unit Two:  Examining the role of Disease on FNs:
  • What were the critical infectious diseases on FNs?
  • Why were FNs unable to maintain their health?
  • Understanding the effects of widespread disease on FNs
  • An assessment of the links between treaties and the onset of diseases
Unit Three:  The Loss of Strategic Roles:
  • An appreciation of the dissolution of the importance of FNs as military allies
  • Assessing the War of 1812 as the final gasp of FNs strategic military importance
  • Understanding the impact on FNs of their lost strategic value
  • The significance of reserves and FNs’ declining fortunes
Unit Four:  A New Beginning – Dependency:
  • An appreciation of the decline of FNs’ status
  • An understanding of the role of the military and the emergence of reserve communities

Lesson Five – Reserves and the Indian Agent: Wards of the State
Unit One: The Importance of Farming and Agriculture in the New Relationship:
  • what challenges faced First Nations to become farmers?
  • An appreciation of the legal and political impediments to wide-spread agriculture among FNs
Unit Two:  The Role of the Indian Agent
  • Understanding the power and authority of the Indian Agent
  • Was the Indian Agent system created as a measure to ensure marginality of FNs?
  • The Indian Act and the Indian Agent – Insurmountable challenges
Unit Three:  Residential Schools
  • An assessment of the objectives of the Residential School program
  • An appreciation of the impact of residential schools on the health and well-being of children
  • Did the Indian Agent and the Indian Act enhance the introduction of residential schools?
Unit Four:  The Inuit (Eastern Arctic)
  • An appreciation of the emergence of permanent settlements for the Inuit
  • Compare the role of the RCMP amongst the Inuit and the Indian Agent amongst FNs.
  • Understanding the role of disease and residential schools among the Inuit
Unit Five:  The Métis
  • The Political Emergence of the Mètis
  • The role of the Métis in western Canada

Six – Political Renaissance

Unit One:  A Review of the 1969 White Paper:
  • An Assessment of the content of the White Paper
  • Understanding of its Intent and Purposes
Unit Two:  First Nations and Métis Responses:
  • Assess the various regional responses to the White Paper
  • Manitoba
  • Alberta
  • Ontario
  • Review the Métis response
  • Identify key potential changes to First Nations if White Paper had become legislation
Unit Three:  The Mackenzie Valley Pipeline and the Berger Commission
  • An Appreciation of the Pipeline project and the Berger Commission
  • What did the Berger Commission offer to First Nations in the NWT?
Unit Four:  Charlottetown and Meech Lake
  • An Assessment of the critical elements for Aboriginal people in the Charlottetown and Meech Lake Accords
  • Did the two Accords represent progress or that status quo for Aboriginal people?

Lesson Seven – The Growth of Aboriginal Political Organizations

Unit One:  A Brief History of the Aboriginal Political Organizations

Unit Two:  The Emergence of National Aboriginal Political Organizations:
  • The National Indian Brotherhood and The Assembly of First Nations
  • Métis and Non-Status Organizations
  • Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC)
Unit Three:  The Emergence of Regional Aboriginal Political Organizations:
  • First Nations regional organizations
  • Métis and Non-Status organizations
  • Inuit organizations
Unit Four:  The Native Women’s Association of Canada

Unit Five:  Other Key Organizations:
  • National Association of Friendship Centres
  • Cultural Education Centres

Lesson Eight – Towards Self-Government

Unit One
: An Assessment of several Self-Government Initiatives and Modern Treaties
  • The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA)
  • Sechelt and Westbank
  • COPE and the Inuvialiut Agreement
Unit Two:  An Appreciation of several key court decisions:
  • Delgamuukw
  • Sparrow
  • Van der Peet
  • Powley
Unit Three:  New Legislation and Economic Self-Sufficiency:
  • An Understanding of the First Nations Land Management Act (FNLMA)
  • An Assessment of the First Nations Statistical and Fiscal Management Act (FSMA)
Unit Four:  A Review of Aboriginal Economic Infrastructural Support:
  • Aboriginal Financial Managers Association (AFOA)
  • National Aboriginal Capital Corporations Association (NACCA)
  • Indian Taxation Advisory Board (ITAB)
  • Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK)

Lesson Nine – New Directions

Unit One:  The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP):
  • Understanding the connection between the Oka Crisis and RCAP
  • Assessing RCAP’s legacy
  • RCAP:  Has it made a Difference?
Unit Two:  New Governments:
  • Understanding the importance of the 2000 Nisga’a Agreement
  • Assessing the Nisga’a Agreement
  • Does the creation of Nunavut in 1999 signal a new beginning?
Unit Three:  The Residential School Resolution:
  • An assessment of the Aboriginal Healing Foundation
  • A Review of  “The Apologies”
  • Understanding the Legacy of Residential Schools
Unit Four:  Demographics Don’t Lie:
  • Understanding the role of population growth for Aboriginal people
  • Aboriginal Youth:  Opportunity or Status Quo?
  • Aboriginal Seniors:  We can’t all be Elders

Ten – New Developments

Unit One: New Economic Initiatives:
  • Assessing the importance of new economic developments:
  • Fish Farms
  • Eco-Tourism
  • Co-Economic projects
  • Tourism
  • Green initiatives
Unit Two: Urban Reserves:
  • Reviewing the emergence of urban reserves
  • Assessing their economic potential for FNs
  • Urban reserves vs urban challenges
Unit Three:  New Directions-Same Social Problems:
  • Review selected social challenges:
  • Family violence
  • Drug and Alcohol abuse
  • Poverty
  • Capacity and Education
  • Can chronic social challenges be met through economic success?
Unit Four:  The Next Generation:
  • Assessing the emergence of an Aboriginal middle class
  • An appreciation of a new Aboriginal Economic Order
  • The Road Ahead

CAFM 6 Grading Structure

CAFM 6 will include two assignments, two tests and one final exam that will scheduled during the course.  A candidate’s final grade will be based on a total score from all of the above.  The value of each of the requirements is:

  Participation/Discussion Questions   20%
  Assignment #1   15%
  Assignment #2  15%
  Test #1
  Test #2  15%
  Final Exam
  Total 100%